An Evaluation to Identify Best Printing Process and Substrate for Newly Developed Color Vision Deficiency Diagnosing Tool

Ganesh Kumar, Heidelberg India Pvt Ltd; Mohan Venkat, Sphere sight Pvt Ltd & Elite school of Optometry, India


To identify the best printing process & substrate for newly developed Daltons Pseudo Isochromatic plates for detecting color vision deficiency by analyzing durability, cost effectiveness and repeatability of different printing processes and substrates.


Color vision deficiency (also known as color-blindness) is a defect in ‘color perception’ by the eyes. This deficiency is more common in men compared to women. Color vision deficiency is prevalent in as many as 8% males and 0.4% females globally. People with color deficiency can only see a limited range of colors and mistakes can be made in color identification.

The need for color vision testing as a routine optometric/ophthalmologic examination is well emphasized as color vision deficiency has an impact in the choice of career/growth in the career for a person. Also, Indian judiciary department noticed increased legal cases of color vision deficiency and career rejections among the young population of India.

The Ishihara pseudo isochromatic plates (a paper based printed testing tool) is widely used to detect color vision deficiency by Optometrists and Ophthalmologists in India & other developing countries. This testing tool is expensive and its print quality & paper durability gets deteriorated due to exposure to various atmospheric conditions and temperatures while using them in vision screening camps.  The Ishihara pseudo isochromatic plates have also been reported to lose its print solidity earlier than the estimated time with noticeable shifts in the colorimetric values. This affects the reliability of the color vision deficiency testing and has led to limited research data.

Thus, we identified the need for more affordable, highly reliable and extremely durable color vision deficiency testing tool which has the capacity to test mass population in a minimal time. Henceforth, we have done extensive research, designed and developed Daltons Pseudo isochromatic plates (patent pending). We developed this new testing tool focusing on the properties and characteristics of different printing materials and printing methods to find the best durable material and printing method which can withstand different atmospheric and usage conditions in developing countries.